Tuesday, December 12, 2006


Appendix C is dedicated to a comprehensive list of hybrids I compiled from 2004 through 2006. Table 7 alphabetizes hybrid cars and trucks by chronological make and model. Some makes are brands, nameplates or wholly owned subsidiaries of parent companies denoted in parenthesis. The list includes modern cars and trucks as well as concept, demonstration, experimental, research, prototypes and race cars. The model “Historical” recognizes some hybrids lost in history. I did not include industrial hybrids such as buses, heavy trucks, trains, ships, etc.
Products available for sale or confirmed for future release are listed by model year (generally one year after the calendar year of release). Concepts are arranged by debut year at an auto show. Others were listed as reported. All were U.S. models unless noted by country or region in parenthesis. For example, (Europe) or (Japan).
“Hybrid” means gasoline-electric unless noted otherwise. Fuel Cell Vehicles are also considered hybrids and are designated by “FCV” or Hydrogen Hybrid. Unique technical specifications are occasionally included in parenthesis after make and model. For example, miles per gallon (MPG) figures were listed for the Accelerated Composites Aptera and next generation 2009 Prius.
Table 7: Hybrid Cars and Light Trucks
• Accelerated Composites: Aptera Diesel-Electric Three-Wheel Parallel Hybrid Concept (330 MPG)
• Acura (Honda): 2002 Acura DN-X Hybrid AWD Sportscar Concept
• Audi (Volkswagen): 1989 Duo Hybrid Experimental Car, 1991 Audi 100 Avant Quatro Hybrid Experimental Car, 1997 A4 Duo Diesel-Electric Hybrid Experimental Car (Europe), 2004 A2 Hydrogen Hybrid Concept, 2005 Q7 Quattro Hybrid SUV Concept, 2008 Q7 Quattro Hybrid SUV
• BMW: 2000 745h Gasoline-Electric FCV Concept, 2005 X3 Concept SUV, 2008 X5 Hybrid Concept SUV, 2008 Hybrid 7 Series
• Cadillac (GM): 2008 Escalade Hybrid SUV (Panasonic battery pack)
• Cherry Automobile: 2007 Cherry Hybrid (China)
• Chevrolet (GM): 2001 S-10 Gasoline-Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC Pickup, 2005 Silverado Hybrid Truck (AC outlets), 2007 Volt Plug-In Hybrid, 2008 Equinox Hybrid SUV, 2008 Malibu Hybrid, 2008 Tahoe Hybrid SUV
• Geely (China): 2008 Geely Maple Hybrid
• GM: 1969 GM 512 Hybrid Experimental Vehicle, 1997 Sintra FCV Mini Van Concept, 1998-2002 HydroGen/Zafria FCV Mini Van Concept, 2000 Precept FCV Concept, 2002 Autonomy FCV Concept,, 2002 Hy-Wire FCV Concept, 2005 Sequel Hybrid FC Concept, 2005 GMC Sierra Hybrid Truck, 2008 GMC Yukon Hybrid SUV, HydroGen3 Hybrid FCV Concept
• Daihatsu (Toyota): 1999 EV-FC Methanol-Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC Micro Van, 2001 MOVE FCV-K-II Hybrid FC Mini-car Concept, 2001 Atrai Hybrid Minivan, 2002-2006 HiJet Cargo Hybrid Van Concept, 2004 UFE2 Hybrid Concept, UFE-III Hybrid Concept Research Vehicle (173MPG), HVS Hybrid Roadster Concept (80MPG)
• Daimler Chrysler: 1982 Boxer Hybrid, 1994-2001 NECAR Methanol and/or Hydrogen Hybrid FC Prototypes, 2000 Jeep Commander 2 Methanol-Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC SUV, 2001 Natrium Town & Country Hydride-Hydrogen-Electric FC Mini Van, 2002 F-Cell A-Class Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC Prototype, 2003 Jeep Treo FCV Concept, 2003 F500 Mind Hybrid Concept, Chrysler Aspen Hybrid Concept SUV
• Dodge (Daimler Chrysler): 1997 Dodge Intrepid ESX Hybrid Concept Car, 1998 Dodge Diesel-Electric Hybrid Concept Car, 2001 Dodge CNG Hybrid Concept SUV, 2004 Dodge Ram Hybrid Truck, Dodge Caravan FCV Hybrid Concept Van, 2008 Dodge Durango Hybrid SUV
• Esoro (Switzerland): 2001 Hycar Hydrogen Hybrid FC Prototype
• Fiat: 2000 Multipla Hybrid Prototype, Panda Hydrogen FC Prototype, 2001 Seicento Elletra H2 Hydrogen Hybrid FCV Prototype, 2003 Seicento Hydrogen Hybrid FCV Prototype
• Ford: 1999 Ford P2000 HFC Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid Ballard FC Prototype, 1999 Ford Prodigy Hybrid Family Car Prototype, 2000-2002 Ford Focus Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC Prototype, 2000 Ford Think FC5 Methanol-Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC Demonstration Prototype, 2003 Ford Futura Hybrid Concept, 2003 Ford Glocar FCV, 2005 Ford Escape Gasoline-Electric (AC outlets), 2006 E-85-Electric Hybrid SUV (AC outlets), 2007 Airstream Hydrogen-Electric Plug-In Hybrid, 2009 Ford Fusion Hybrid Midsize, Ford Edge Hybrid, Ford Fiesta Micro Hybrid Concept, Ford-Five Hundred Hybrid Concept, Ford Focus FC5 Methanol FCV-Hybrid Concept, 2006 Ford Reflex Diesel Solar Electric Hybrid Concept (65MPG)
• Historical: 1900 Pieper, 1903 Krieger, 1906-1912 Auto Mixte, 1907 L'Energie Electro-Mécanique AL Hybrid (France), 1914 Couple Gear Aerial Ladder Truck, 1920 Owen Magnetic Model 60 Touring Hybrid, 1914 Woods Dual Power Hybrid, 1916 Baker, 1979 Mother Earth, 1980 Briggs and Stratton Hybrid
• Honda: 1997 J-VX Hybrid Concept, 1999 VV Hybrid Concept, 1999-2006 Insight Hybrid, 2001 Dual-Note Hybrid Concept Sportscar, 1999-2001 FCX-V1-4 Methanol then Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC Prototypes, 2002-2006 FCX FCV Concept, 2003 Kiwami FCV Concept, 2003-2005 Civic I Hybrid Compact, 2005 Accord Hybrid Sedan, 2006 Civic II Hybrid Compact, 2007 CR-V Hybrid CUV, 2008 Fit Hybrid, Honda Pilot Hybrid SUV, Honda Ridgeline Hybrid Truck
• Hyundai: 1995 FGV-1 Concept Hybrid, 2000-2001 Santa Fe FCV Concept SUVs, FGV-2/Verna/Avante Hybrid Concept, 2004 Click Hybrid, 2004 Tucson FCV Concept, 2005 Hyundai Accent Hybrid Concept, 2005 Portico Hybrid Concept
• Isuzu: 2004 Elf Diesel Hybrid Light Duty Truck
• Kia: 2004 Sportage FCV Concept, 2006 Kia Rio Hybrid Concept
• Lexus (Toyota): 2003 Lexus RX 330 Hybrid Concept SUV, 2005 Lexus 450h Hybrid Racecar, 2006 Lexus RX 400h Hybrid SUV, 2007 Lexus GS 450h, 2008 Lexus LS 600h Hybrid Luxury Sedan, 2009 Lexus LF-Sh V-8 4WD Hybrid
• Lincoln (Ford): Lincoln MKX Hybrid SUV
• Loremo: Loremo LS (165 MPG) & GT (92 MPG) Hybrid Concepts
• Mahindra & Mahindra (India): 2008/2009 Mahindra Scorpio Diesel-Electric Hybrid SUV Concept, Hy-Alpha Hydrogen Hybrid Concept
• Mazda (Ford): 1997 Demio FCV Concept Car, 2001 Premacy Methanol FCV Concept, 2002 Demio Hybrid Van, 2003 Ibuki Hybrid Roadster Concept, 2007 Tribute Hybrid SUV, Premacy RE Hydrogen Electric Concept Mini Van, Senku Rotary Hybrid Concept
• Mercury (Ford): 2006 Mariner Hybrid SUV, Montego Hybrid, 2009 Milan Hybrid Midsize
• Mercedes (Daimler Chrysler): 1999 Mercedes S-Class Hybrid Concept, 2004 Mercedes Vision GST Diesel-Electric Hybrid Concept, 2005 S400 Hybrid Concept, 2005 Smart Diesel-Electric and Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Concepts, 2007 Mercedes Blutec E320 Diesel Electric Hybrid, 2009 Mercedes S-Class Hybrid, Mercedes Blutec GL and SL Diesel Electric Hybrids, Mercedes A-Class Hybrid Concept
• Mitsubishi: 2001 Spaceliner Methanol FCV Concept, 2003 Gradis FCV Concept Mini Van, 2004 Concept-E Hybrid Concept, Sportscar, 2006 Concept-CT MiEV Prototype, FCV Hydrogen Hybrid Van Concept
• N Technology/Tattus (Renault): 2007 NT207 Hybrid Racecar
• Opel (GM): 1997 EV1 FCEV Methanol-Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid Prototype, 1997 Sintra FCV Hybrid Mini Van Prototype, 2006 Astra Diesel Electric Hybrid Concept
• Nissan (Renault): 1999 R’nessa Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC Concept SUV, 2000-2001 Xterra Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC Concept, 2002 X-TRAIL Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC Concept SUV, 2003 Effis Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC Concept Commuter Car, 2007 Nissan Altima Hybrid Passenger Car
• Panoz: 1998 Panoz Q9 GT Ford Gasoline Zytec Electric Hybrid LeMans Racecar
• PATAC (GM/Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. Group): 2001 Phoenix FCV Concept
• Porsche: 1898-1905 Lohner Porsche Hybrids, 2005 Cayenne Hybrid Concept SUV, Porsche Panamera Hybrid Concept
• PSA Peugeot Citroen: 2001 Hydro-Gen Hybrid FCV Concept, 2007 307 HDi Hybrid, 2006 Peugeot 307 CC Hybrid Diesel Hybrid and Citroen C4 Hdi Diesel Electric Hybrid Demonstration Concepts, 2006 Paris Auto Show Peugeot C-Metisse Diesel Hybrid, Peugeot 207 Epure FCV Hybrid Concept
• Renault: 1997 Laguna Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC Concept Wagon, 2003 Kangoo Hybrid Van Concept
• Shanghai Maple Automobile (Geely): 2008 Hybrid Concepts
• Saab (GM): 2006 SAAB BioPower Ethanol-Electric Hybrid Concept Convertible, 2010 SAAB E-85 Hybrid Turbo Passenger Car
• Saturn (GM): 2007 Saturn VUE Green Line Hybrid SUV, 2007 Saturn Aura Greenline Hybrid Sedan, 2008 Saturn VUE Green Line Two-Mode Hybrid SUV, Saturn VUE Green Line Plug-In Hybrid SUV
• Subaru: 2003 Subaru B9 Scrambler Hybrid Concept Roadster, 2005 Subaru B5-TPH Turbo Parallel Hybrid AWD Concept Wagon
• Suzuki: 2001 Covie FCV Concept, 2003 Mobile Terrace FCV Concept, 2003-2005 Twin Hybrid, Landbreeze Hybrid SUV Concept, Ionis FCV Hybrid Concept Van, 2010-2012 Hybrid
• Tokyo R&D: Vemac RD408H V-8 150KW Hybrid Racecar
• Toyota: 1977 Toyota Sports 800 Gas Turbine (GT) Hybrid Prototype, 1996-1997 RAV-4 FCEV Hydrogen-Electric Hybrid FC Concept, 1997-2000 First Generation Prius (Japan), 2000-2003 Second Generation Prius or Prius Classic Hybrid Compact (Japan/Europe/U.S.), 2001 Estima Hybrid Minivan, 2001 Crown Hybrid Sedan, 2001-2002 Kluger FCHV 3-5 Hydrogen-Electric FC Hybrid Concept, 2003 Alphard (Japan, AC outlets) Hybrid Minivan, 2003 FINE-S FCV Concept, 2004-2008 Third Generation Prius, New Prius or Prius II Compact (Global), 2004 FTX Hybrid Truck Concept, Highlander FCV Concept SUV, 2003 SU-HV1 Hybrid SUV Concept, 2004 Volta Hybrid Sportscar Concept, 2004 Harrier Hybrid (Japan) SUV, 2004 Highlander (U.S.A.) Kluger (Australia/Japan) Hybrid SUV, 2006 Vitz CVT Light Hybrid (First Lithium-ion), 2007 Camry Hybrid, 2007 FT-SH Concept Sportscar, 2008 Tundra Hybrid Truck, 2009 Fourth Generation Prius (Lithium-Ion, 94 MPG), Sienna Hybrid Minivan Concept, Crown Concept, CS&S Hybrid Concept, Vitz Hybrid Sub-Compact, Prius Sub-Compact Hybrid Concept, Prius CUV Hybrid Concept, Prius Wagon Hybrid Concept, Prius Plug-In Hybrid Concept
• Quantum: 2004 H2 Hydrogen Electric Hybrid Prius Research Vehicle
• Venturi: 2009 Astrolab Solar-Electric Hybrid
• Volkswagen: Golf ECO.Power Diesel-Electric Hybrid, 2008 Touran Hybrid Minivan (China), Bora Hydrogen Hybrid Concept, Jetta Hybrid, HY.MOTION FCV Concept
Sources: Toyota,, accessed October 28, 2004 and November 3, 2006; Hybrids, Wikipedia, “List of Hybrid Vehicles,”, Wikimedia Foundation Web site, accessed 2004 – 2006; Union of Concerned Scientists, “Hybrid Vehicle Timeline,” Web site,, accessed May 16, 2006, October 20, 2006 and November 3, 2006;, “History of Hybrid Vehicles,”, accessed 2006; “Fuel Cell Vehicles,”, accessed December 1, 2006; Ward’s Automotive Reports and Various Organization Web sites including Audi, CNET, Motor Trend, MSN Autos, MSNBC Green Machines and Auto Show Web sites.

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